Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity SlideShare

Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a young patient

Oral squamous cell carcinoma - SlideShar

Grossly, squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity may have the following types: Ulcerative type Papillary or verrucous type Nodular type Scirrhous type All these types appear on a background of leukoplakia or erythroplasia of the oral mucosa. Enlarged cervical lymph nodes may be present. 20 Introduction Definition Squamous cell carcinoma is defined as a malignant epithelial neoplasm exhibiting squamous differentiation as characterized by the formation of keratin and/or the presence of intercellular bridges (Pindborg JJ et al, 1997)  most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity (more than 90%) 3

Squamous cell carcinoma is managed by surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy singularly or in combination; but regardless of the treatment modality, the five-year survival rate is poor at about 50%. This can be attributed to the fact that about two-thirds of persons with oral squamous cell carcinoma already have Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the inside of the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off) Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of Oral Cavity is a common malignant tumor of the mouth that typically affects elderly men and women. It is more aggressive than conventional squamous cell carcinoma affecting other body regions The cause of the condition is unknown, but genetic mutations may be involved

  1. Key words: Oral cancer, apoptosis, telomerase activity, LCM. More than 95% of the carcinomas of the oral cavity are of squamous cell type, in nature. They constitute a major health problem in developing countries, representing a leading cause of death. The survival index continues to be small (50%), as compared to th
  2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of mouth cancer that is usually caused by excessive alcohol and tobacco use. Cancer of the mouth usually manifests as small discolored lesions on the tongue, gums, inner lips, or the floor or roof of the mouth
  3. Oral cavity CIS has same age and sex distribution as invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) - males in fifth to eighth decade of life who are smokers and drinkers Risk of oral SCC increases with age Male gender predilection (3:1) historically related to greater use / abuse of tobacco and alcohol by men.
  4. There are very few case reports of clear-cell variant of SCC. Kuo was the first one to report the clear-cell subtype of cutaneous SCC in 1980, and Kumar et al. was the first one to mention the same in the oral cavity. Since maximum number of the cases were mentioned from the cutaneous part, we could observe few of the valuable findings to compare our case with them
  5. Etiology Theetiologyoforalcancerinmanis unknown.However,severalpre-exist ingconditionshavebeenfoundwith suchfrequencyinpatientswithoral cancerthattheymaybeconsidered,a
  6. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma In addition to features seen in lesions of nodular basal cell carcinoma, lesions of pigmented BCC contain increased brown or black pigment seen more commonly in individuals with dark skin 9. Cystic basal cell carcinoma Translucent blue-gray cystic nodules may mimic benign cystic lesions. 10
  7. Oral squamous cell carcinoma affects about 34,000 people in the US each year. In the US, 3% of cancers in men and 2% in women are oral squamous cell carcinomas, most of which occur after age 50. As with most head and neck sites, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. The chief risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma are

Most of the studies show a high incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in oral cavity, with a percentage of 80-90% -16]. Fábio Ramôa Pires found in his study that one third of all oral malignant tumors were not squamous cell carcinomas [7] Oral squamous cell carcinoma affects about 34,000 people in the US each year. In the US, 3% of cancers in men and 2% in women are oral squamous cell carcinomas, most of which occur after age 50. As with most head and neck sites, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer In the oral cavity, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent malignant neo-plasm. Despite the ready accessibility of the oral cavity to direct examination, these malig-nancies are often still not detected until a late stage and, as a result, the survival rate for oral cancer has remained essentially unchanged. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common form of skin cancer. It's usually found on areas of the body damaged by UV rays from the sun or tanning beds. Sun-exposed skin includes the..

Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ

Cancer that occurs on the inside of the mouth is sometimes called oral cancer or oral cavity cancer. Most oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. It's not clear what causes the mutations in squamous cells that lead to mouth cancer. But doctors have identified factors that may increase the risk of mouth cancer INTRODUCTION. Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies, 1 especially in developing countries, but also in the developed world 2.Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common histology and the main etiological factors are tobacco and alcohol use 3.Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavit

Oral Cavity: TX. Primary tumor cannot be assessed. Tis. Carcinoma in situ. T1. Tumor ≤ 2 cm, ≤ 5 mm depth of invasion (DOI) T2. Tumor ≤ 2 cm, DOI > 5 mm and ≤ 10 mm; or tumor > 2 cm but ≤ 4 cm, and DOI ≤ 10 mm. T3. Tumor > 4 cm; or any tumor with DOI > 10 mm but ≤ 20 mm. T4: Moderately advanced or very advanced local disease: T4 Oral cavity. cancers usually present in males, aged 55-60 years, with clinical features like pain, dysphagia. , or a nonhealing. ulcer. on the tonsils, tongue, or oral. mucosa. . Clinically suspected cases are confirmed via histopathological examination of a Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC

Oral squamous cell carcinoma: Etiology, pathogenesis and

Examination of the oral cavity

What is Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma? (with pictures

  1. Carcinoma bequem und günstig online bestellen. Erleben Sie günstige Preise und viele kostenlose Extras wie Proben & Zeitschriften
  2. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT• Causes- Basal cell carcinoma of the skin- carcinoma of the vermilion border of the lipsespecially in people with outdoor occupation.• Affects men more. 17. FUNGAL INFECTION• Candida albicans has been implicated in oralsquamous cell carcinoma.• Also found in oral red and white patches withmalignant potentials.
  3. a presentation from subject of oral pathology
  4. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OC-SCC) is the most common malignancy of the head and neck (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer). Recent trends have shown a dramatic rise in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OP-SCC), with a marked increase in lesions related to human papillomavirus infection
  5. Cyclin D1 amplification correlates with early recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Fujii M, Ishiguro R, Yamashita T, Tashiro M: Cancer letters. 2001 ; 172 (2) : 187-192. PMID 11566495 : Centromeric breakage as a major cause of cytogenetic abnormalities in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Pathology Outlines - Dysplasi

  1. Overall incidence and mortality attributed to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing, with current estimates of age-standardized incidence and mortality of 6.6/100,000 and 3.1/100,000 in men and 2.9/100,000 and 1.4/100,000 in women, respectively. Recent studies confirm that oral cancer forms a large part of the cancer load in parts of India
  2. TNM classification of carcinomas of the lip and oral cavity. Tumour more than 2 cm but not more than 4 cm in greatest dimension. Tumour invades through cortical bone, inferior alveolar nerve, floor of mouth, or skin (chin or nose) Tumour invades through cortical bone, into deep/extrinsic muscle of tongue (genioglossus, hyoglossus, palatoglossus.
  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity. More than 90 percent of mouth cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. They are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts
  4. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent form of cancer of lips and oral cavity, and its diagnostic delay, caused by misdiagnosis at the early stages, is responsible for high.

Clear-cell squamous cell carcinoma: An uncommon variant of

The squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered the most frequent malignant neoplasm in the oral cavity (), and it predominantly affects Caucasian males between the fifth and the sixth decade of life ().In young patients, aged less than 40 years, the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rare and represents 4%-6% of all the reported cases Main. Because more than 90% of all oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, the vast majority of oral cancers will be diagnosed from lesions on the mucosal surfaces. The clinician's challenge is to differentiate cancerous lesions from a multitude of other red, white, or ulcerated lesions that also occur in the oral cavity Background: Oral cancer is defined as uncontrollable growth of cells seen in the oral cavity. It appears as a growth or sore in the mouth that does not cure. Oral cancer includes cancers of the lips, tongue, cheeks, floor of the mouth, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx.Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of oral cancer

Though a wide range of carcinomas are found in oral cavity, the most well-known type of Oral Cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the hereditary changes and expression of genes are keys to the understanding of pathogenesis of Oral cancer. Men confront double the danger of creating oral malignancy as ladies, and men who are over age. Squamous cell cancers of the mouth and oropharynx. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is cancer starting in the squamous cells. Around 95 out of 100 (95%) of all oropharyngeal cancers are SCC. Most mouth cancers are also SCC. Squamous cells are the flat, skin like cells covering the inside of the mouth, nose, larynx and throat The most common type of tongue cancer is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Squamous cells are the flat, skin like cells that cover the lining of the mouth, nose, larynx, thyroid and throat. Squamous cell carcinoma is the name for a cancer that starts in these cells

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavity. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Tongue. Squamous Cell Carcinoma : Lip. Squamous Cell CA : Oropharynx. Squamous Cell CA : Oropharynx. Squamous Cell CA of Oropharynx : p16. Squamous Cell CA of Oropharynx : p16. Verrucous Carcinoma. Verrucous Carcinoma People with oral cavity cancer may have questions about their prognosis and survival. Prognosis and survival depend on many factors. Only a doctor familiar with a person's medical history, type of cancer, stage, characteristics of the cancer, treatments chosen and response to treatment can put all

Oral cavity cancer

Forty percent of head and neck cancers occur in the oral cavity, including the tongue, floor of the mouth, palate, lips and oropharynx. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide.1 The. Squamous cell carcinoma: More than 90 percent of cancers that occur in the oral cavity are squamous cell carcinomas. Normally, the throat and mouth are lined with so-called squamous cells, which are flat and look like fish scales on a microscopic level. Squamous cell carcinoma develops when some squamous cells mutate and become abnormal Results Of 81 operated squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity cases, there were 32 (39.50%) loco regional recurrences. 17 patients had local recurrences, nodal recurrences in 7, six patients had. Verrucous carcinoma (also known as Ackerman tumor) is an uncommon exophytic low-grade well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. This neoplasm typically involves the oral cavity, larynx, genitalia, skin, and esophagus. It is well known for its locally aggressiveness and for its clinically slow-growing behaviour with minimal metastatic potential Squamous cell carcinoma. This type affects the cells above the basal cells in your skin and is the second most common type of skin cancer. Transitional cell carcinoma

Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx. The larynx is a part of the throat, between the base of the tongue and the trachea.The larynx contains the vocal cords, which vibrate and make sound when air is directed against them.The sound echoes through the pharynx, mouth, and nose to make a person's voice Oral lipoma: Ranula: Nasolabial cyst: Scarlet fever (Strawberry tongue) Herpes zoster: Traumatic ulcer and hematoma: Verruca vulgaris: Benign neoplasm: Squamous papillomas: Carotid body paraganglioma: Malignant neoplasm: Squamous cell carcinoma of lip (1, 2, 3) Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (1, 2) Verrucous carcinoma of tongue (1, 2

Ras mutations in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas 2Oral cavity and salivary gland diseases

Introduction. Head and neck cancer refers to malignancies of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity or salivary glands.Over 90% derive from squamous cell epithelium, hence are often collectively referred to as Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas (HNSCCs).. In the UK, around 10,000 new cases of HNSCCs are diagnosed each year, whilst in the US they account for 3-4%. Male: male-to-female ratio is 2:1 for cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx 5 and at least 3:1 for HPV-associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and oral cavity 6. Age: HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients have a median age of diagnosis at 54 years 7. Caucasian: white males have the highest overall. The clinical presentation of squamous cell carcinoma can vary greatly, but often involves a single, persistent ulcer. Although any site in the mouth can be involved, the majority of cases develop in the floor of the mouth, under the tongue (see Figure 4) or in the retromolar region (the space at the rear of the mandible) Main article: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Most common tumour of the head & neck . Tongue squamous cell carcinoma is dealt with separately. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma can be considered a variant SCC. HPV-associated SCC is dealt with in HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma This is why oral cancer is also known as squamous cell carcinoma. Oral cancer can develop in any of the tissues found in the oral cavity including the tongue, gums, lining of the cheeks, roof of the mouth, the area under the tongue, as well the area behind the wisdom teeth. 3. Oral Cancer Facts. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in.

A significant predictor of treatment failure in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cancer. 2001;92: 3030-3036. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar: 30. Wreesmann VB, Katabi N, Palmer FL, et al. Influence of extracapsular nodal spread extent on prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1): E1192-E1199 External beam radiation used for oral and oropharyngeal cancers. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is the type of radiation therapy most often used to treat oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer or its spread to other organs. It focuses radiation from a source outside the body onto the cancer. Before EBRT, a somewhat flexible but sturdy mesh. larynx, oral cavity cancer, oropharynx cancer on the rise Typical Presentation of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer • Patients tend to be younger. • Are more likely to be males, married and college-educated. • Typically present without a significant history of tobacco or alcohol abuse. • Have sexual risk factors for oral or genital HPV. These cancers are most commonly squamous cell carcinomas. Alcohol and tobacco use are the two most important risk factors and are responsible for the majority of cases. Other risk factors include certain viral infections, poor oral hygiene, and workplace-related exposures, such as radiation

The etiology and pathogenesis of oral cance

The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of head and neck tumors is the most widely used pathologic classification system for such disorders. The current revision, part of the 4 th edition of the WHO series, was published in 2017 and is reflected in the article below 1.. Classification Tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and skull bas Oral Carcinomas or Malignancies are becoming more and more prevalent due to the oral habits like smoking, ghutka chewing, alcohol etc. With the increase of such habits the incidence of malignancies have also drastically increased. With Squamous cell carcinoma being one of the most common carcinoma of Oral cavity and other carcinomas affecting the Oral [&helli

Basal cell carcinoma of oral cavity - SlideShar

  1. In 1948, Ackerman was first described after studying the lesion affected on the oral cavity and he described the tumor as a low-grade carcinoma with a pathologic variant of squamous tissue. After this, 1954, the condition clinically termed as Verrucous carcinoma provided by Aird et al., as they found the histological characteristic of the tumor.
  2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) presents in several clinical forms: either as a white lesion (leukoplakia), a red lesion (erythro-plakia), a red and white lesion (erythroleukoplakia), an indurated mass, or as a mucosal ulcer. The floor of the mouth (Figure 1A
  3. Leukoplakia is different from other causes of white patches such as thrush or lichen planus because it can eventually develop into oral cancer. Within 15 years, about 3% to 17.5% of people with leukoplakia will develop squamous cell carcinoma, a common type of skin cancer
  4. Verrucous papillary lesions (VPLs) of oral cavity are diagnostically challenging as they include a spectrum of benign, potentially malignant, and frankly malignant lesions. A majority of the benign VPLs have viral aetiology and include commonly occurring squamous papilloma along with verruca vulgaris, focal epithelial hyperplasia, and condyloma
  5. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is rare in pediatric patients. The tongue and lower lip are the most frequently reported sites.4 In this article, we report a rare case of SCC of the maxillary gingiva in a prepubes-cent female. ase Report A healthy 10-year-old girl was referred to a community oral and maxillofacial surgeo
  6. Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma. At this stage, cancer may have grown to any size. It has also spread to more than 1 lymph node and grown beyond 3 cm here. It has also possibly spread to other organs like the lungs and may also have grown into the bones of the ribs, spine, or base of the skull. 11. Treatment For Early Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  7. oral submucous fibrosis; 1, 2 Approximately half of these cases present as squamous cell carcinoma on the lip or within the oral cavity. 3 While the detection and treatment of most malignancies has improved over the last several decades, the prognosis associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has remained unchanged. 4-6 As a result.

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Ear, Nose, and Throat

Eur J Cancer 2013;49:1374-1403 15th most common cancer in Europe1 • Lip and oral cavity cancer in Europe (2012): • 61,400 new cases diagnosed (2% total) • ~34,100 cases of other pharyngeal cancer diagnosed (1% total cancer cases)1 • Highest World age-standardised incidence rates in Hungary (both men and women) Clear cell odontogenic tumor Squamous odontogenic tumor Calcifying odontogenic cyst† *Nonodontogenic origin. †Contains cystic and solid components. Table 6 Prevalence of Solid Malignant Mandibular Lesions Most common Squamous cell carcinoma arising from adjacent mucosa* Fairly common Multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma* Lymphoma* Leukemia. This can be accomplished by using next-generation sequencing such as pyrosequencing (Roche 454) and sequencing by synthesis (Illumina), or the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which has shown alterations in oral microbiota and the range and makeup between healthy patients and those with squamous cell carcinoma from the oral cavity. 5 Case of the Week #156. Clinical History. A 50-year-old man with a history of heavy cigar smoking presented with severe inflammation, marked hyperemia and swelling of the free and attached gingival in the maxillary and mandibular arches. Heavy plaque accumulation was present around the teeth, and the gingiva bled easily when touched


The HPV subtypes most often found in oral squamous cell papilloma are HPV-6 and HPV-11. These subtypes are not associated with malignancy or precancer. Management of squamous cell papilloma. Oral papillomas are painless and may be left untreated. They appear not to change in size, spread to other parts of the oral cavity, or turn into malignant Oral Cancer Prevention Dr shabeel pn What is oral cancer? This is cancer that occurs in the oral cavity and part of the throat at the back of the mouth. - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 761f52-MTJj

Oral cavity cancer includes tumours of the:4 buccal mucosa retromolar triangle alveolus hard palate anterior two-thirds of tongue floor of mouth mucosal surface of the lip. 1.4 TuMOuR sTAGING For the purposes of the guideline each tumour subsite is divided into early disease - equivalent to stages 1 and 2 following the Union. 5. ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA Evidence suggests that there is a role for one or more of HPV16, 18, and possibly 31, 33 in the pathogenesis of some oral squamous cell carcinomas. RNA Viruses: A. PICORNA VIRUS: COXSACKIE • Picornavirus. • Coxsackie A viruses cause herpangina, hand foot and mouth disease, and acut of Oral Ulcerations Dr. Nagamani Narayana Department of Oral Biology University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry. ent Objectives Squamous cell carcinoma. ent Treatment •Treated with warm salt water rinses •Mouth guard •Biotene mouthwash. ent Follow-up Examination salivary glands, nasal cavity or peri-oral skin. The most common type of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. 5- Malignant diseases Ulcerative lesions Common sites of oral cancer are the lower lip, the floor of the mouth, and the sides and underside of the tongue, but it is possible to have a tumo

Tumours of oral cavity

Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis

The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with an early diagnosis of oral cavity and pharynx cancers is 84%. If the cancer has spread to nearby tissues, organs, or lymph nodes, the 5-year. 1. Introduction. Oral cavity cancer is the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide(1]and comprise about 85% of all head and neck cancers. Regions with a high incidence of oral cancer ( > 6.9/100,000] are : North America, Brazil, Europe, South Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, and Australia Areas with low incidence (< 3.2/100.000] are Central America, Chile, West Africa, Middle East and China Oral cancer is cancer that develops in the tissues of the mouth or throat. It belongs to a larger group of cancers called head and neck cancers. Most develop in the squamous cells found in your. squamous cell carcinoma Posted by rkharitha on March 24, 2018 March 24, 2018 'A malignant epithelial neoplasm exhibiting squamous differentiation characterized by the formation of keratin and/or the presence of intercellular bridges.

Tumor of oral cavity

Mouth cancer - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini


Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer: Stages and Grades Cancer

Furthermore, it is one of the risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, esophagus, and hypopharynx. Prognosis. Patients generally respond well to treatment. Iron supplementation usually resolves the anemia, and corrects the glossodynia (tongue pain).. The HPV subtypes most often found in oral squamous cell papilloma are HPV-6 and HPV-11. These subtypes are not associated with malignancy or precancer. Management of squamous cell papilloma. Oral papillomas are painless and may be left untreated. They appear not to change in size, spread to other parts of the oral cavity, or turn into malignant. The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental ce Slide 62 of 78 of Tumours of external and middle ea Squamous cell carcinoma (60%) was the most common malignant lesion of oral cavity involving the tongue and buccal mucosa and adenoid. Keywords: Conjunctiva, eye, human papillomavirus 52, real time polymerase chain reaction, squamous cell carcinoma Human papillomavirus HPV infection is strongly associated with anogenital tumors cervix, penis, vulva, vagina, papilloma virus alla vescica head and neck cancers oral cavity, esophagus, larynxand nonmelanoma skin cancers squamous.

histologic variants of oral squmous cell carcinoma

Oral Cavity Reconstruction.pdf. Ayko Nyush. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 34 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER. Oral Cavity Reconstruction.pdf. Download. Oral Cavity Reconstruction.pdf Adenocarcinoma of the lung is a type of non-small cell lung cancer. It occurs when abnormal lung cells multiply out of control and form a tumor. Eventually, tumor cells can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body including the. lymph nodes around and between the lungs. liver One of the most common symptoms is experiencing pain in particular places in the head or neck. Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer symptoms. If you do combine them as the American Cancer Society does, this is the 2014 data. Oral cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) affects about 41,000 people in the US with about 8,000. The life cycle of HPV in the oral cavity starts with the infection of basal squamous epithelial cells through a trauma or erosion, which allows the entrance of the DNA virus into the host. 7 To be active, the virus must infect an epithelial stem cell and at skin level, a stem cell from a hair follicle, which is rich in these cells. 8 DNA.

The Squamous papilloma of the oral cavity or mouth affects many parts of the mouth like lips, the inner surface of the cheeks and also the tongue. This benign tumor produces warts like growths inside the mouth. They can affect people of any age group. But, most commonly they are seen in the people above the age of 30 years Salivary gland tumours also known as mucous gland adenomas or neoplasms are tumours that form in the tissues of salivary glands.The salivary glands are classified as major or minor.The major salivary glands consist of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The minor salivary glands consist of 800-1000 small mucus-secreting glands located throughout the lining of the oral cavity Oral cancer, predominantly oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is a high-effect local disease in the oral cavity affecting over 300,000 people worldwide annually (1, 2). Patients with OSCC often present with symptoms at a late stage, and there is a high recurrence rate after treatment, especially in those with neck lymph node metastasis Nearly 20 years ago, the International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that tobacco smoking increased risks of cancers of the lung, oral cavity (mouth), pharynx, larynx, oesophagus (squamous-cell carcinoma), pancreas, bladder and renal pelvis (the kidney outlet). Smokers are much more likely to develop these cancers than non-smokers: between 3 times more for pancreas cancer and 20 times. Incidence and Risk Factors. Cancer of the nasal planum is uncommon in the dog and relatively common in the cat. The development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been correlated with ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and lack of protective pigment. 1 One paper suggests a papillomavirus may be involved in feline SCC development. 2 Classically, it is seen in older, lightly pigmented cats