Meyer and schvaneveldt (1971)

Citation. Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation of Recognizing Pairs of Words Evidence of a Dependence between Retrieval Operations. Journal of Experimental. 1971, vol. 90, no. 2, 227-234 facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations1 228 david e. meyer and roger w. schvaneveldt Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of experimental. DOI: 10.1037/H0031564 Corpus ID: 36672941. Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. @article{Meyer1971FacilitationIR, title={Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations.}, author={D. Meyer and R. Schvaneveldt}, journal={Journal of experimental psychology}, year={1971}, volume={90 2.

Meyer 與 Schvaneveldt - 1971 - Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words Eviden.pdf (Version: 1) Loading files... This page is currently connected to collaborative file editing. All edits made will be visible to contributors with write permission in real time Meyer 與 Schvaneveldt - 1971 - Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words Eviden.pdf (Version: 1) Craft 與 Simon - 1970 - Processing symbolic information from a visual disp.pdf. Eimer 與 Schlaghecken - 1998 - Effects of masked stimuli on motor activation Beh.pdf. Eriksen 與 Eriksen - 1974 - Effects of noise letters upon the identification o. Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) suggested that the response times were faster when the string of words were related because a part of the memory is activated in which the retrieval of words from semantic memory is faster. Associative priming and the lexical decision task is an extension of the study by Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) showed that people were quicker to identify a word when exposed to a related word earlier. Suppose the experimental task is to decide if a string of letters appearing on the screen in front of you is a word or a non-word. The participant's instructions are to press button A if it is a word, button B if it is a non.

coding of new concepts (Collins & Loftus, 1975; Meyer, 1973; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971, 1976; Neely, 1977). Lexical-decision and other studies have taught us a great deal about the importance of such conceptually driven processes in lexical access (cf. Crowder, 1982), but we know little about the processes involved in determining tha Created Date: 12/5/2001 1:16:36 P The task was introduced by Meyer and Schvaneveldt in the 1970s. Their study aimed to understand how long-term memory is organized and how we retrieve information from it. In the original study, Meyer and Schvaneveldt found that people respond more quickly to words that are related in their meaning than to words that are entirely unrelated example, in a seminal study, Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) demonstrated that people were faster to decide that butter is a word in English when it was preceded by the word bread than when it was preceded by the word nurse ó (González and Márquez 2007: 203). Lexical decision task is often combined with th

Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a

  1. Previous research (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Neely, 1977) showed consistent facilitation of target-word processing, in the lexical decision task, when preceded by the semantically related prime.
  2. commonly obtained finding (e.g., Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Meyer, Schvaneveldt, & Ruddy, Note 1) is that subjects are quicker to respond that a target letter string (e.g., NURSE) is a word when the immediately prior target was a semantically related word (i.e., DOCTOR) than when the immediately prior target was a seman
  3. Since the early seventies (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971), it has been a well-known and robust phenomenon in psycholinguistics that the processing of a word benefits from the presence of a preceding word to which it is related in meaning. For instance,.

Meyer, Schvaneveldt, and Ruddy (1972) reported that in a lexical decision task, the word association effect was maintained when two associated words were separated by an unassociated word but was eliminated when the two were separated by a nonword. They suggest that the effect is eliminated in the latter case because a negative decision may result in a resetting of the memory system to a. nurse; e.g., Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Neely, 1977; Posner & Snyder, 1975; Schvaneveldt & Meyer, 1973). Such effects indi- cate that the time it takes people to react to paired concepts is a measure of the strength with which the concepts are semanti A lexical decision is deciding if a string of letters is a word or not, e.g., dog vs hra. It was introduced by Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) in the early 1970's. This decision seems a trivial task but it turns out that it it has helped illustrate many fundamental processes in the cognitive tasks of reading words David E. Meyer & Roger W. Schvaneveldt. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):227 (1971) Abstract This article has no associated abstract. (fix it) Keywords word pair recognition facilitation, dependence between retrieval operations: Categories Memory and Cognitive Science in Philosophy of Min 2 Meyer & Schvaneveldt LDT Individuals are faster to identify words when they are associated by meaning, this is referred to as semantic priming (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1976). Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) proposed the lexical decision task (LDT) which measures participants response times (RT) when asked to classify stimuli as English words or non-words through 'yes' or 'no' answers

Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation ..

  1. The dual lexical decision task is a variant of the standard lexical decision task, and was first performed by Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971). In the dual task, participants see two letter strings at the same time, and must decide whether both are words. This makes the task more complex; if there's one word and one non-word, participants must.
  2. g Used a variation of the lexical decision task, by showing pairs of words/nonwords (vs. single words/nonwords), some closely associated and some not--to measure reaction time
  3. 2) In the first experiment by Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) there was one independent variable (string types) which referred to the two different letter strings presented in each trial. There were five different levels of this IV which corresponded to the four different types of letter string pairs presented: Level 1: Letter strings were semantically related words Level 2: Letter strings were.
  4. just prior to, the target word. In the prototype experiment (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971), subjects saw two simultaneously presented strings of letters (e.g., bread butter, wine plame, nart thief) and decided whether or not both strings formed words. The pairs in which both strings formed word
  5. al article on semantic pri
  6. Lexical decision task. This tutorial will walk you through creation of a full lexical decision task experiment (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971) [1]. This example will be based on Experiment 1, where word pairs are presented with a limited time period to respond. The task requires participants to identify whether each word pair contains a non-word

[PDF] Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: evidence

  1. al experiment on semantic pri
  2. g paradigm introduced by Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) is one of the most widely used in psycho-logical studies of memory and language. Many studies have demonstrated that participants' recognition of a target word, such as nurse, is facilitated when it is preceded by a relate
  3. g using two tasks, a same-different task and a lexical-decision task, with word and nonword stimuli. The lexical-decision task required subjects to judge whether or not the presented strings of letters were both English words. The word an
  4. Meyer, D. E. and Schvaneveldt, R. W. Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psycholog
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OSF Meyer 與 Schvaneveldt - 1971 - Facilitation in

  1. g (e.g., Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Schreuder, Flores d′Arcais, & Glazenborg, 1984). Though associative pri
  2. g (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971) on implicit memory tests such as lexical decision and na
  3. of a verbal context provides good evidence for this position (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Morton, 1964a; Pillsbury, 1897; Samuels, 1969; Tulving & Gold, 1963). Those experiments that appear to be most directly concerned with the relationship between interword redundancy and visual perception in readin
  4. ed by cognitive psychologist
  5. g. The spreading activation explanation of this phe
  6. Lexial decision tasks were first used in an experiment by David Meyer and Roger Schvaneveldt in 1971. Participants were presented with two groups of letters, and were asked to select 'yes' if both.

1981; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971). Borowsky, 1998; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Meyer, Schvan-Usingidenticalprime-targetstimuli(i.e.,repetitionpriming)and eveldt, & Ruddy, 1974), suggesting that the extent of prime pro-a forced-choice test of words flashed at perceptual threshold, cessing is a critical factor that may potentially eliminate or eve Participants performed a primed visual LDT (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971) in two versions. In the masked version, a forward pattern mask consisting of 10 randomly drawn upper case letters was shown for 133 msec in the middle of the screen. After disappearance of the mask, a prime word was presented for 33 msec Thus, responses to the word flower are faster if the word is preceded by the word tree vs. the word knife (Meyer and Schvaneveldt, 1971). Psychophysiologists who wish to avoid priming effects typically use randomization methods to help ensure that it is unlikely for a majority of the participants to systematically experience. Meyer and Schvaneveldt's (1971) study of reaction time to paired words, such as bread/butter or nurse/butter, was an examination of which of the following memory phenomenon? spreading activation. The notion of long-term potentiation is that

Semantic Priming: Effects of Related and Unrelated Word

  1. Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) presented participants with a simultaneous pair of letter strings, and the participant's task was to decide if both items were words or nonwords (double lexical decision task). They used two variations of this task. In the first experiment, participants had t
  2. g are discussed. 1984 Academic Press, Inc. One of the most replicable (as well as most replicated) findings to appear in the psychological literature in the 1970s is the semantic association effect first reported by Meyer and colleagues (Meyer & Schvane- veldt, 1971; Meyer, Schvaneveldt, & Ruddy, 1975)
  3. g sion (Fischler & Goodman, 1978; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, is the technical term for influencing the processes of 1971; Neely, 1976), tachistoscopic recognition (Rouse word recognition by a preparatory stimulus, the prime
  4. g effects are reliable, th
  5. For example, by presenting participants with the concept of a doctor, associated concepts such as nurse or stethoscope are primed. As a result, participants recognize a word like nurse more quickly (Meyer, & Schvaneveldt, 1971). Similarly, stereotypes can automatically prime associated judgments and behaviors
  6. In a classic study by Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971), participants were shown pairs of words. Participants' goal was to indicate whether both words were real words by pressing yes if they were or no if they were not. Participants responded faster when the two words were related in meaning (e.g., nurse and doctor) than when the two.
  7. (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971)and usedthe ratio of speed of processing linking words (Walker, 1976; Fiske, 1992) on speed of processing neutral words as the variableoflinking schema. Control variables. We controlled for participants' gender,age, nationality, work experience, native language, centralityin the friendship networkand ranking schema

MIND,BRAIN,ANDEDUCATION Grounding Second Language Vocabulary Instruction in Cognitive Science Peta Baxter 1, Harold Bekkering , Ton Dijkstra1,MienkeDroop2, Marianne van den Hurk2, and Frank Léoné1 ABSTRACT—Cognitive neuroscience has gained signifi Meyer, D.E., Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental.

tell, 1971; see also Craik & Bialystok, 2006): Whereas fluid abilities (or cognitive mechanics; e.g., working memory, problem solving) that represent the information processing aspect of intel-ligence, are typically seen to decline over the adult life span, crystallized abilities (or cognitive pragmatics; e.g., language o Participants start out with three 3-digit sequences. If participants correctly recall 2 out of 3 three sequences, they progress to 4-digit sequence trials and so on. If participants respond incorrectly on 2/3 trials the experiment terminantes. This experiment is based on the original digit span experiment by Jacobs (1887)

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Priming Effects in Social Cognition in Chapter 15

Modeled after study by Meyer, Schvaneveldt & Ruddy as reported in Meyer, DE & Schvaneveldt, RW (1976). Meaning, memory structure, and mental processes. Science, 192, 27-33. Bare-Bones Instructions: 1) Press SPACE BAR to start the trial. 2) Maintain your gaze on the red (top) fixation mark. 3) When the red fixation mark is replaced by a. mantic properties of verbal material (e.g., Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971). In a typical priming experi-ment, a prime word is presented before a target word. The participant in the study is supposed to re-act to the target word quickly, usually by pressing a key or by pronouncing the target. The semantic rela Although versions of the task had been used by researchers for a number of years, the term lexical decision task was coined by David E. Meyer and Roger W. Schvaneveldt, who brought the task to prominence in a series of studies on semantic memory and word recognition in the early 1970s

Meyer, D.E., & Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1971). Facilitation in Recognizing Pairs of Words: Evidence of a Dependence between Retrieval Operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 227-234. The experiment consists of totally 6 blocks: 2 blocks of practice trials and 4 blocks of experiment trials. Each block has 24 trials This Week's Citation ClassicTM NOVEMBER 19,1984 Meyer D E & Schvaneveldt R W. Facilitation in recognizing pairs pf words: evidence ofa dependence between retrieval operations. J. Exp. Psycho!. 90:227-34, 1971. (Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ. andState University ofNew York, Stony Brook, NY) An experimental technique was introduced to in Both visual and auditory primes are known to influence the speed of lexical access (Antos, 1979; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Radeau, 1983) and ambiguity resolution (Swinney, 1979)

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Semantic Priming of Nonwords in Lexical Decisio

In 1971 Schvaneveldt co-wrote with David E. Meyer the seminal article on semantic priming. He developed Pathfinder Network Scaling with Francis T. (Frank) Durso and others, editing a widely cited book on it in 1990, [2] [3] and has also published on expertise , implicit learning , aviation psychology, and on discovery in biomedical informatics. offered by Smith (1971) in which readers are regarded as 'predicting' A. their way through a-passage of text, eliminating some alternatives in. advance on the basis of their knowledge of the redundancy of language, and acquiring just enough visual information to eliminate. the remaining. alternatives (p. 230). Such a position argues for a. Meyer DE, Schvaneveldt RW Schvaneveldt RW. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 01 Oct 1971, 90(2): 227-234 DOI: 10.1037/h0031564 PMID: 5134329 . Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Abstract . No abstract provided

Meyer and Schvaneveldt (Reference Meyer and Schvaneveldt 1971) adapted the paradigm to provide a simple, but powerful, empirical and theoretical approach to studying subconscious mental structures and processes whereby people represent and retrieve information in long-term memory. In their classic experiment they measured response times as. Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) observed that participants were almost 100 ms faster to indicate yes to pairs of associated words (855 ms, 6.3% errors) than to pairs of non-associated words (940 ms, 8.7% errors). They concluded from this finding that the degree of association was a powerfu

word (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Meyer, Schvaneveldt, & Ruddy, 1975; see also Neely, 1977). For example, the identification of the word nurse is faster when preceded by the word doctor than when it is preceded by the word bread. This facilitation effect has been referred to as the single word priming or context effect (Borowsky & Besner, 1993 priming effects (e.g., Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971); perceptual priming (Neely, 1981); implicit serial, or sequence, learning (Jime ´ nez, Me ´ ndez, & Cleeremans, 1996; Reber, 1967); and short-term memory (Sternberg, 1966)—each of which will be addressed in this chapter. However, it was not until the mid-1970s,when real. (Meyer and Schvaneveldt 1971) and does not require mechanisms that are specific to discourse. Evidence suggests that resonance alone helps readers maintain both local and global connections among discourse concepts (Albrecht and O'Brien 1993). In contrast, proponents of the constructionist view argue that knowledge activation results from an.

Lexical Decision Task (LDT

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Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971)の課題は、提示された文字列に対する単語―非単語判断を求める課題であった。 これらは、いずれも二肢選択課題である。 信号検出理論によれば、二肢選択課題は、入力処理のプロセスと判断生成のプロセスという2つの独立なプロセス. Priming - priming occurs when exposure to one stimulus influences how you react to something else (Meyer and Schvaneveldt, 1971). For example, priming of the word food would make you fill in S_ _ P with soup instead of soap.Priming can cause us to make decisions in a certain manner based on information we were provided prior to the decision Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Download for Mac or Windows. 18. Bousfield (1953) The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Download for Mac or Windows. 23 materials (e.g., Johnston & Hale, 1984; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Schvaneveldt & McDonald, 1981). In recent years, however, a far more diverse set of priming effects have been reported in the psycho-logical literature. These effects involve changes in how well people perform complex tasks, higher-level judgments about many kind

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& Schvaneveldt, 1971; Pexman et al., 2008; Ratcliff, & McKoon, 1988). It should be noted that some of this evidence has been previously discussed as semantic priming, i Schvaneveldt, Roger W., Meyer, David E., Becker, Curtis A. How much do you like this book? What's the quality of the file? Download the book for quality assessment. What's the quality of the downloaded files? Volume: 2. Year: 1976. Language: english. Journal (Meyer &Schvaneveldt, 1971), whereas aformprimingstudymayexplore the effects of the presentation of a related nonword prime bunction or related word prime junction on the recognition of the target word function (Forster & Veres, 1998). Priming studies, according to McRae, Hare, Elman, and Feretti (2005) Semantic priming is identified in a classic experiment by Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971). In this experiment, Ss were presented with pairs of elements made up of letters. Their task was to judge as quickly as possible, whether BOTH elements were words. There were five kinds of pairs: 1. Both elements were words but unrelated 2

Semantic Priming (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971). In addition, practitioners often employ their own proprietary adaptations of these methods. These reinvented methods are applied to a variety of marketing issues such as brand tracking, concept evaluation and copy testing. However, these methods are often developed without independent pee University of Texas at Austi (Meyer and Schvaneveldt, 1971) The evidence. John Bargh conducted an experiment whereby 34 students were given a list of ten scrambled sentences, each made up of five words. They were then asked to create a logical sentence using only four of the words provided, leaving one word aside. The group was split in two with half constructing sentences.

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unrelated, prime words (e.g., Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Neely, 1976, 1977)— semantic relations now known to be highly correlated with those identified in free-association tasks (for a review see Ratcliff & McKoon, 1994). Extensive research demonstrates that a variety of social beliefs and attitudes function as semantic an associations (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Neely, 1976). For instance, it was demonstrated that participants are faster to respond to a target word like nurse if it is preceded by a semantically related word such as doctor, as opposed to a semantically unrelated word like bread. In the 1980s, re-searchers began using implicit measures to reveal. Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971) Human amnesia. H.M.'s bilateral medial temporal lobe resection on MRI EC entorhinal cortex, MMN medial mammillary nucleus; A amygdala; H hippocampus CS collateral sulcus; PR perirhinal cortex 1953 operation: Scoville & Milner (1957) J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 20: 1 In 1971 Schvaneveldt co-wrote with David E. Meyer the seminal article on semantic priming. He developed Pathfinder Network Scaling with Francis T. (Frank) Durso and others, editing a widely cited book on it in 1990 and has also published on expertise, implicit learning, aviation psychology, and on discovery in biomedical informatics with Trevor. Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) •General Knowledge of the world -Lexical Decision task: An experimental technique in which a string of letters is presented (e.g. DOCTOR), and the participant must say whether the string forms a word (p.481) 10 Semantic Memory: Classic Study of Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) •General Knowledge of the worl

(PDF) Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence

Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971) • lexical decision task • RT measure • NO trials (usually) not of interest • are YES trials faster when preceded by a related word? Yes = priming! Neely (1977) • read the prime, then make a lexical decision about the target • prime always a category name; target always an instance (member of category target is likely to be more quickly classi ed as being a word (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971). This result is assumed to occur because as subjects make lexical decisions, the prime word serves as an informative cue to the target string. That is, some aspect of the stimulus properties of the prime word reduces the subject's uncertainty about th

Semantic Priming - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

274 M. BANAJI, C. HARDIN, AND A. ROTHMAN or female target who performed behaviors weakly related to the primed behaviors. Subjects then evaluated the target on several trai In this task, participants are required to judge whether a string of letters is a word or a non-word. This experiment is based on Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971) experiment Rumelhart, 1981; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971). Similarly to the incremental learning account of repetition priming and semantic interference in speech production (Oppenheim, Dell, & Schwartz, 2010), Rodd et al. (2013) suggest that every encounter with an ambiguous word strengthens the connection between the word and the encountere & Kardes, 1986; Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971; Neely, 1976; Nuttin, 1985; Stroop, 1935), the Implicit Associa-tion Test (IAT) was introduced by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) as a novel measure of relatively automatic information activation. Like many other indirect measures,1 the IAT consists of a series of sorting trials

Effects of interpolated items on the association effect in

This is a test for speed and accuracy in recognizing (Dutch) words, and (semantic) priming effects. The test is derived from the work of Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971). Standard use so far concerns a test consisting of 98 presentations of pairs of letter series Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971) Exp 1: Y/N both words? RT of correct responses Y-N task 400 600 800 1000 1200 Associated Unassoc W-non Non-W Non-Non Associated vs. unassociated: 85ms difference Serial decision model: 2-stage decision process 1st non-word: quick N decision Word-nonword pair: more errors b/c fast Y to wor Meyer, D. E. & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90 (2), 227-234. doi:10.1037/h0031564 See Also. PEBL Test Batter

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Meyer & Schvaneveldt (1971) Return to top. PSY 672: Cognitive Psychology Study Guide for Third Exam: ESSAYS. Discuss in detail Hockett's (1963) thirteen characteristic or design feature of language. Compare and contrast Finite State and Phrase (Constituent) Structure Grammars. What advantages and shortcomings do these grammars exhibit - 25 - Figure 9, plus a number of constants. We start by creating a number (say 50) trees at random; this first set is called generation 0. We then evaluate each one and assign it a real valued score Meyer DE, Schvaneveldt RW (1971) Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. J Exp Psychol 90: 227 - 234, doi: 10.1037/h0031564, pmid: 5134329 ‪Arizona State University; New Mexico State University; SUNY Stony Brook‬ - ‪‪Cited by 13,344‬‬ - ‪Cognitive Psychology‬ - ‪Cognitive Science‬ - ‪Psychometrics‬ - ‪Human Factors‬ - ‪Bioinformatics

Assessment of Meyer and Allen's three-component model of

Priming is an implicit memory effect in which exposure to one stimulus influences the response to another stimulus. Experiments in the early 1970s showed that people were faster recognising a word, when the word followed a related word. For example, NURSE is recognized more quickly following DOCTOR than following BREAD. Activation spreading among related ideas was the best explanation for this. Meyer, DE; Schvaneveldt, RW (1971). Szópárok felismerésének megkönnyítése: A visszakeresési műveletek közötti függőség bizonyítéka. Journal of Experimental Psychology 8) c e s ( s e i t turesg n im a n - r u o l o C Neutral Gamblers 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Drug Gambling Stroop Spouses Controls 50 ChristopherG.McCusker Figure1. Roger W. Schvaneveldt. Professor, Applied Psychology Unit Arizona State University Polytechnic (retired) telephone: (602) 312-4114. 1971 - 1977 Associate Professor State University of New York at Stony Brook. 1970 - 1971 Visiting Assistant Professor University of Colorado, Boulder

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David E. Meyer & Roger W. Schvaneveldt, Facilitation in ..

For example, after being presented with a stimuli, subjects would retrieve articles related to the stimuli faster than unrelated articles, as stimuli-related concepts were activated (Meyer & Schvaneveldt, 1971) (Collins & Loftus, 1975)